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This story originally ran in 2018 and has been updated to reflect the three years of the pandemic, sharp declines in college enrollment, passage of the federal infrastructure plan and the changing U.S. economy, which is prompting more people to go straight into the workforce. Data and statistics are the most recent available, and new developments have been added. 

Like most other American high school students, Garret Morgan had it drummed into him constantly: Go to college. Get a bachelor’s degree.

“All through my life it was, ‘If you don’t go to college you’re going to end up on the streets,’ ” Morgan said back in 2018. “Everybody’s so gung-ho about going to college.”

So he tried it for a while. Then he quit and started training as an ironworker, which is what he was doing on a weekday morning in a nondescript high-ceilinged building with a concrete floor in an industrial park near the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport.

Morgan and several other men and women were dressed in work boots, hard hats and Carhartt’s, clipped to safety harnesses with heavy wrenches hanging from their belts. They were being timed as they wrestled 600-pound I-beams into place.

Garret Morgan, right, training in 2018 to become an ironworker. Demand for ironworkers is growing 4 percent a year; even as a 20-year-old apprentice, Morgan was earning $28.36 an hour, plus benefits. Credit: Sy Bean for The Hechinger Report

Back then, the demand for ironworkers was rising. It still is: the sector is growing 4 percent annually, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Ironworkers earn, on average, $27.48 per hour, or $57,160 per year. Morgan was already working on a job site when he wasn’t at the Pacific Northwest Ironworkers shop. At 20, he was earning $28.36 an hour, plus benefits.

Five years later, he’s on the job full time, working “six-10s” — industry lingo for 10 hours a day, six days a week. He helped build the Rainier Square Tower in Seattle and a data center for Microsoft. “I’m loving it every day,” he said. “It was absolutely the right choice.”

As for his friends from high school, “Someday maybe they’ll make as much as me.”

Nearly 90 percent of construction companies nationwide are having trouble finding qualified workers.

While a shortage of workers pushes wages higher in the skilled trades, the financial return from a bachelor’s degree is softening, even as the price, and the average debt into which it plunges students, remain high.

But high school graduates have been so effectively encouraged to get a bachelor’s that high-paid jobs requiring shorter and less expensive training are going unfilled.

Related: How higher education lost its shine

“Parents want success for their kids,” Mike Clifton, who taught machining for more than two decades at the Lake Washington Institute of Technology before retiring, said in 2018. “They get stuck on [four-year bachelor’s degrees], and they’re not seeing the shortage there is in tradespeople until they hire a plumber and have to write a check.”

The Washington State Auditor found in 2017 that good jobs in the skilled trades were going begging because students are being almost universally steered to bachelor’s degrees. Recent labor statistics suggest that’s still the case – in Washington State and around the country.

President Joe Biden, in his State of the Union address, spoke of “jobs paying an average of $130,000 a year, and many do not require a college degree.”

Ironworkers climbed rebar on the outside of a training center near Seattle in 2018. Ironworkers in this program were already making around $50,000 a year while they trained. Credit: Sy Bean for The Hechinger Report

Among other things, the Washington auditor recommended that career guidance — including choices that require fewer than four years in college — start as early as the seventh grade.

“There is an emphasis on the four-year university track” in high schools, Chris Cortines, who co-authored the report, said after it was issued. Yet, nationwide, nearly three out of 10 high school grads who go to four-year public universities haven’t earned degrees within six years, the most recent figures from the National Student Clearinghouse show. At four-year private colleges, that number is nearly one in five.

“Being more aware of other types of options may be exactly what they need,” Cortines said. In spite of a perception that college “is the sole path for everybody,” he said, “when you look at the types of wages that apprenticeships and other career areas pay, and the fact that you do not pay four years of tuition and you’re paid while you learn, these other paths really need some additional consideration.”

And it’s not just in Washington state.

Today, nearly 90 percent of construction companies nationwide are having trouble finding qualified workers, according to the Associated General Contractors of America; in Washington, the proportion is 88 percent. Ironworkers remain in particularly short supply, along with drywall installers and sheet metal workers.

Related: In spite of a growing shortage in male-dominated vocations, women still aren’t showing up

The $1.2 trillion federal infrastructure plan – Biden’s signature legislation passed by Congress in 2021 – will create 1.5 million construction jobs per year for the next 10 years, the White House says, boosting the share of all jobs that are connected with rebuilding the nation’s infrastructure from 11 percent to 14 percent, according to the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Median wages for construction jobs are higher than the median pay for all jobs, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports.

“The economy is definitely pushing this issue to the forefront,” Amy Morrison Goings, president of the Lake Washington Institute of Technology, which educates students in these fields, said in 2018. “There isn’t a day that goes by that a business doesn’t contact the college and ask the faculty who’s ready to go to work.”

Amy Morrison Goings, president of the Lake Washington Institute of Technology, which changed its name from Lake Washington Technical College to avoid being stereotyped as a vocational school. Credit: Sy Bean for The Hechinger Report

In all, some 30 million jobs in the United States that pay an average of $55,000 per year don’t require bachelor’s degrees, according to the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce.

Yet the march to bachelor’s degrees continues. And while people who get them are more likely to be employed and make more money than those who don’t, that premium appears to be softening; their inflation-adjusted median earnings were lower in 2018, the most recent year for which the figure is available, than in 2010.

“There’s that perception of the bachelor’s degree being the American dream, the best bang for your buck,” said Kate Blosveren Kreamer, deputy executive director of Advance CTE, an association of state officials who work in career and technical education. “The challenge is that in many cases it’s become the fallback. People are going to college without a plan, without a career in mind, because the mindset in high school is just, ‘Go to college.’ “

“When you look at the types of wages that apprenticeships and other career areas pay, and the fact that you do not pay four years of tuition and you’re paid while you learn, these other paths really need some additional consideration.”

Chris Cortines, Washington State Auditor’s Office

It’s not that finding a job in the trades, or even manufacturing, means needing no education after high school. Most regulators and employers require certificates, certifications or associate degrees. But those cost less and take less time than earning a bachelor’s degree.

Tuition and fees for in-state students to attend a community or technical college in Washington State, for example, came to less than half the cost last year of a four-year public university, and less than a fifth of the price of attending the cheapest private four-year college.

Related: Rural universities, already few and far between, are being stripped of majors

Washington is not the only state nudging students into education for the trades. At least 39 states have taken steps to encourage career and technical education, and many have increased funding for it, a 2017 Brookings Institution review found. 

At the federal level, legislation introduced in Congress in January would make some short-term workforce programs eligible for federal Pell Grants.

“For too long, the college-for-all mentality drove Americans toward expensive and often ineffective education pathways,” its sponsors said. “As our country stares down a historic worker shortage, fewer Americans are getting the skills they need to be successful.”

An apprentice ironworker practiced attaching I-beams in a training program near Seattle in 2018. Credit: Sy Bean for The Hechinger Report

Money isn’t the only issue, advocates for career and technical education say. An even bigger challenge is convincing parents that it leads to good jobs.

“They remember ‘voc-ed’ from when they were in high school, which is not necessarily what they aspire to for their own kids,” Kreamer said. Added Kairie Pierce, apprenticeship and college director for the Washington State Labor Council of the AFL-CIO: “It sort of has this connotation of being a dirty job. ‘It’s hard work — I want something better for my son or daughter.’ “

The Lake Washington Institute of Technology, about 20 miles from Seattle, changed its name from Lake Washington Technical College, said Goings, its president, to avoid being stereotyped as a vocational school.

“People are going to college without a plan, without a career in mind, because the mindset in high school is just, ‘Go to college.’ ”

Kate Blosveren Kreamer, deputy executive director, Advance CTE

These perceptions fuel the worry that, if students are urged as early as the seventh grade to consider the trades, then low-income, first-generation and high school students, and students of color will be channeled into blue-collar jobs while wealthier and white classmates are pushed by their parents to get bachelor’s degrees.

“When CTE was vocational education, part of the reason we had a real disinvestment from the system was because we were tracking low-income and minority kids into these pathways,” Kreamer said. “There is this tension between, do you want to focus on the people who would get the most benefit from these programs, and — is that tracking?”

In a quest for prestige and rankings, and to bolster real-estate values, high schools also like to emphasize the number of their graduates who go on to four-year colleges and universities.

Jessica Bruce enrolled in community college after high school for one main reason: because she was recruited to play fast-pitch softball. “I was still trying to figure out what I wanted to do with my life,” she said.

Related: What’s a college degree worth? States start to demand colleges share the data.

But she “couldn’t quite figure it out,” she says today. She was an apprentice ironworker in 2018, making $32.42 an hour, or more than $60,000 a year, while continuing her training. At 5-foot-2, “I can run with the big boys,” she said at the time, laughing.

Five years later, now 46, she’s starting a job installing 500 tons of rebar for a Boeing hangar near Seattle, working mostly outdoors, which she likes. She’s also back in school, of sorts, taking online courses to get her certification to become a fitness instructor as a side gig. And she’s bought a Harley.

Bruce says she has “absolutely no regrets.” As for her own daughter, who’s 15, “if it’s college then it’s college,” she says. “I fully support that.”

But students now in high school “are becoming maybe a little bit more aware” of the potential for making good money in the trades, she added.

“I know my daughter is aware. I’ve told her there’s every kind of trade out there.”

This story was produced by The Hechinger Report, a nonprofit, independent news organization focused on inequality and innovation in education, in collaboration with KNKX. Additional reporting by Ashley Gross.

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  1. While your report is eye opening and accurate regarding skills needed and job openings, you sadly neglect to mention one real issue:
    Union card. Many graduates of tech schools/programs/certificates are unable to obtain the union card necessary to work.

  2. Hello, I have a very similar situation with my life so I figured I’d give my opinion on the situation. I too went to college right from high school and it wasn’t so much I didn’t have any interest in what I wanted to do, I didn’t want to do just one thing forever as I have severe adhd (which I didn’t get diagnosed with until later in life). So I just kept losing interest and going from one job to the next. I actually had always enjoyed building and technical things so I was using tools probably before I was five so I didn’t really need to do anything extra to get construction work. I basically ended up with owning my own construction company, which I didn’t enjoy at all in comparison to the work but here are my gripes in contrast to college or other paths. First off, it takes a toll on your body like nothing else, I have so many herniated disc’s and bulges I’ve lost count, and corrective surgeries and working in extreme cold and heat just makes it very hard to be that stable, appreciative of my own work ethic guy that I am. I don’t want to miss work or things in my personal life because of all that, but you do. People are all built different so some people can go longer than others but I know for sure that my friends that went to secondary school weren’t dealing with that level of pain. Which brings me to my next point which is unless you get into a union you are most likely going to be dealing with issues with pay and no benefits forever. Most contractors don’t offer benefits let alone get your check to you on time. And then you have the cyclical nature of real estate in general, which will bring the industry to a halt every so often and you will find yourself making 20 percent of what you were just to get some work. I had to go back to school at 38 because I physically just couldn’t deal with it anymore and I didn’t want to run a construction company. I went and got an engineering degree and I’m playing catchup with life and of course there are other personal factors involved in every situation but I just don’t want people to think it’s all peaches and cream. I still am unable to stand on my feet for more than 3 to 4 hours at a time without resting and taking medication. I also was bothered by the stigma of the perception of people in the trades. Its not the view of the work that bothered me so much, but the fact that there are really a lot of disingenuous people in the field so you are instantly judged by most to a certain point, at least until you prove yourself otherwise (but that’s an issue I had, not everyone cares about that). I do especially recommend community college instead of going right to any 4 yr school without being totally sure what you want out of life. I thought I knew a lot at 18 and it turned out I knew very little, at least about life, you change so much over time, not just mentally but physically too. What you think you want at 18 probably won’t be the same at 40 so explore your options and maybe do construction in your 20s while you are young and energetic and then you’ll have a better idea of where to go from there and have some money saved as well. Thanks, Dominic Adezio.

  3. I believe the problems discussed in Jon Marcus’ article concerning how many students are choosing college instead of trades, focusing on ironworkers, began a very long time before stated in the article. I say that for more than a few reasons, but the main one is because I did the same thing. I am 75 years old, and graduated from high School in 1965.
    My parents were very persuasive with the idea that college was the next step necessary after high school, no ifs, ands, or buts. My mother was a teacher, and constantly told me that if I didn’t go to college, I’d end up digging ditches for the rest of my life.  My father, who had only an 8th grade education, wanted his kids to have it better than he did, and college after high school was his idea of the “golden ticket”.
    So, after high school, I went to college. Not one of the stately colleges with the old architecture and vine covered walls, the entrance requirements for those were too steep, but to a “Jr college”. After 2 years of that, I got a letter from “Uncle Sam” telling me that if I wasn’t going to do something, they needed me in Viet-Nam.  So, I beat it to a few local recruiters, and ended up in the U.S. Coast Guard for four years. I learned a lot of interesting things, and saw a number of interesting places during that four years, but at the end of my enlistment, I went back to the Jr. College for a year, to get back into “school mode”, and then on to a 4-year college for the last 2 years of my degree, which took me 3 years.
    I had decided, due to my experience in the military, that I wanted to work in broadcasting.  I wanted to be a broast engineer.  That required schooling in more advanced electronics than I had from the Coast Guard, but I also wanted an “out”, in case I had to change directions. So, I decided to get a BSET (Bachelor of Science, Electronic Technology) degree. I spent 6 years in college to get that 4-year degree. Part of that was due to poor choices in courses, and part of that was that some of the courses weren’t offered when I needed them.  But I did learn several things from that experience.
    The first thing I learned was that I had picked the wrong degree.  Part of that was due to the academic advisors good sales pitches. But there was also a disconnect between what they were telling us, and what the industry actually wanted. The positions that were available to “technologists” were being filled by technicians who already worked for the company, and knew the product lines. (I had already changed directions from the very tight broadcasting market.)
    The second thing I learned was about something called “overqualified”. The Bachelors degree actually held me back, because once I entered the job market, most of the places I applied to said that I had too much education, and not enough experience. Back to the technician again.
    When I finally did get a job, it was in spite of, rather than because of, my degree. In retrospect, I would have been better off at the Jr. college, getting the training to be a good technician, rather than going all the way to trying to be an Engineering aid, with the degree and training that wouldn’t get me there without a lot of luck, and being in the right place at the right time.

    I don’t know how much has changed over the years, but one thing that hasn’t changed, at least in my opinion, is the idea that an overqualified applicant isn’t as desirable as an under qualified one.

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